Working with children’s fears
Children’s fears are observed every child of preschool age, which is fine, because the absence of fear would threaten the very life of the child: fear, like pain, warns of danger.
Developing and extending the life experience, the child is constantly faced with new phenomena and situations that at first alarming and frightening. Of course, fears of this kind are eventually overcome. “I’m scared, but I’m not afraid,” say the preschoolers.
But if the child feels fear, then, of course, this can disrupt the normal rhythm of life of the child, limits of cognition of reality, reduce and even paralyze the natural curiosity of children of preschool age. But the fears in children occur most often when a frightening, unknown, unknown happens to the child without support from the adult, i.e., coincides with a feeling of helplessness and insecurity. Hardly the child is feeling under the protection of the mother, formed a pathological fear of dogs in response to the warning that the dog might bite. But the same words spoken with irritation mother during the conflict with the child or said a stranger in the absence of loved ones (and in that and in other case, the child feels alone and vulnerable), can initiate a neurotic fears.
Often children’s fears are raised by the parents. Submitting your bad habits, parents, achieving obedience, scaring the children all imaginable and unimaginable characters: Baba – Yaga, a doctor, a lover, a policeman, the delivery of the child “back to the store” etc. They seem to inhabit the child’s world fears, denying him his defense and thus denying him the opportunity to feel safe.
Children’s fears are understood as the emotional reactions of children to a situation of threat (real or imagined) or dangerous in the view of the children of the object they are experiencing as discomfort, agitation, desire to escape or hide. The primary emotion of fear is observed in newborns. Then socialize and fears arise as reactions to new objects and situations. Consolidation in the emotional sphere of the child’s primary fear extends the range of his social fears and increases sensitivity to threats. Children’s fears develop due to the lack of parental acceptance and warmth, when children do not feel protected. These children often develop a fear of school.
Fears are emerging in everyday life, it’s better and overcome. Good emotional contact with the child, the ability of adults use lies in games psychotherapeutic possibilities of healing and fill with meaning the most mundane situations are often sufficient assistance to the child. Therefore, when working with children’s fears are gaming, drawing, whispering, and fabulous group therapy.
Play therapy is most similar to children of preschool age, as it is closest to reality and meets the age and needs of children in the game. During play therapy, children are given autonomy and the ability of improvisation as a process of creativity and self-discovery. Spontaneous game reduces the feeling of tension and stiffness, improves emotional response, helps to understand and overcome fear. For the child has the opportunity to Express themselves in safe situations where it is in harmony with himself and his feelings and experiences.
Fabulous therapy is based on the children are familiar with fairy tales. For example, playing with the fairy tale “the Gingerbread man”, the role of the gingerbread man takes the child who runs away from home and meets up with various characters, portrayed as an adult. On its way the bun needs to overcome a number of obstacles, for example, to find your way in the woods, take shelter from the storm, cross the river, to protect themselves from the threat of attack, etc. Here, in addition to identifying fears is the value, how far can the child in his imagination. In dependent and anxious children gingerbread man shown more concern as the distance from the house and a desire to return. In children with a tendency towards independence and protest reactions bun does far more than “escape”.
Therapy Art activities of children is of two types – modeling and drawing. Modeling has the same principles as drawing therapy, but drawing, as shown, more intimate, accessible and easily understandable for children.
The child is invited to draw their fears. Due to the conditional nature of their image children can perform this task without much effort. Thus they seem to cross your own, violate its safety and inaccessibility, neutralize the fear of fear in your mind. This can be explained as follows. Before the child is able to portray the fear, he can overcome the obstacle of internal stress, be fully aware of the fear. As the child guesses about the therapeutic role of the figure, because the subject gave an adult, usually a psychologist or therapist, then this task inadvertently (unconsciously) associated with improvement. In addition, the process of drawing the child is supervised by, and therefore in the analysis of comments and invisible support specialist, working with the child.
Whispering therapy is similar to play therapy, where the child and the psychologist take on the role of some animal and lose a certain situation, explaining actions and deeds, and the psychologist uses the “parrot” by asking and answering questions, whatever the answer would like to hear baby.
All of the above methods are carried out in dyadic relationships: a psychologist – child. Group therapy is conducted with the child in the group of children where the child’s problem may be submitted to the group, and are resolved by joint, and the adult acts as a master. Group therapy is held in T – groups in the form of various games and exercises.
Game 1. “Draw your own” (25 minutes).
The goal: the Removal of fears.
The procedure of the game:
The children are seated at tables. The facilitator asks them to draw a picture called “My fear”. After the children draw pictures need to discuss fears of every child.
Game 2. “Darkness” (25 minutes).
The goal: the Removal of fears of the dark.
The procedure of the game:
Etude 1. A child is chosen, afraid of the dark. In the presence of other children in a brightly lit room it thrown in the middle of the room for five to seven minutes, and the child imagines that he is alone. Other children can draw or play some quiet games. You can also arrange a conversation with him: “See, Serge sits alone and is afraid of nothing! But, you are not afraid?”
Etude 2. In a dark hole. The child, afraid of the dark, comes hand in hand with the caregiver in a dark room for three to five minutes. He presents himself as “shy chick”, who entered the “dark hole”.
Etude 3. The second time the child enters the dark room, describing himself as “a bold duckling” (three to five minutes).
Game 3. “Animal school” (20 – 25 minutes).
The aim of the game:
Removing the fear of school.
Of the total number of children selected those children who fear school. Every child at the request chooses a role of any animal (shaking with fear hare, aggressive tiger). “Animals” are seated at desks, is the “teacher” (master) and begins the lesson. Animals behave according to their role.
Game 4. “School for the people” (20 – 25 minutes).
The aim of the game:
Acceleration of adaptation to school.
In this situation the school is presented as something bright, pure, good. Conducted drawing lesson. Children draw the plot of “School”. One of the children plays the role of a teacher.
You can modify the drawing lesson, the Teacher draws on the Board any shape (circle, square, etc.). Children redraw this figure.”Teacher” be sure to praise those who have got a good figure.