The Development of logical thinking in children of preschool age
Logic (al-Greek. — “the science of correct thinking”, “the art of reasoning” from “speech”, “reasoning”, “thought”)
Relevance. A child is ready for schooling largely depends on the development of his intellect. After all, it is important not only what knowledge is owned by the child at the time of admission to school, and whether he is ready to receive new knowledge, the ability to reason, to dream, to make their own conclusions, analyze, compile, build the designs, drawings, writings. Studies have shown that a significant part of the difficulties faced by children during primary education, due to the fact that the older preschoolers are insufficiently developed ideas about the conceptual relations underlying the logical thinking. The mastery of logical relations has a significant place in the intellectual development of the child, so the older preschoolers are quite able to “overcome” the barrier between visual-imaginative conceptual and logical thinking. This is possible if all of the activities your preschooler to develop mental operations, such as synthesis, comparison, abstraction, classification, establishing causal relationships, understanding interdependencies, the ability to reason.
Preschool childhood is a period of intellectual development of all mental processes, which provide the child the opportunity to become familiar with the surrounding reality.
The child learns to perceive, to think, to speak; it takes many modes of action with objects, learns certain rules and begins to govern themselves. All of this involves working memory. The role of memory in the child’s development is enormous. Learning about the world and about himself, the acquisition of skills, habits – all this is due to the work of memory. Especially large memory requirements of the child makes in school.
For the successful completion of the curriculum the child should not only know, but also consistent and evidence-to think, to guess, to exercise the mind, think logically.
Mastering any way of remembering, the child learns to distinguish the purpose and to carry out to implement some work with the material. He begins to understand the need to repeat, compare, summarize, classify the material in order to remember.
Teaching children classification contributes to the successful mastery of more complex way of remembering – semantic grouping with which the children meet in school.
Using the possibilities of the development of logical thinking and memory preschoolers can successfully prepare children to tackle the challenges posed by our schooling.
Games and exercises:
“Who was?” The point of this game is to answer the question of who (what) was used.
Chicken (egg), horse (foal), oak (acorn), bread (flour), shirt (cloth), house (brick), fish (egg), butterfly (caterpillar), etc., etc.
“By whom?” The child responds to the adult questions: “Who or what will?
Egg (chicken), a boy (man), iron (machine), brick (building), a disciple (a student), the patient (healthy), weak (strong).
“Say the opposite” . The child calls the opposite in meaning of:
sad, funny, high – low, start – end, start – to-finish, to forget, to remember, day – night, narrow – wide, buy – sell, stupid – smart.
“What more?” Children in the preschool age need to be aware of the relationship between objects and concepts. Questions can build as follows:
– what in the woods more: trees or birch trees?;
– in which field more: colors or cornflowers?;
– what is more in our wardrobe: the clothes or shirts?;
– what in the river more: fish or platy?
“What more?” (no illustration).The game allows you to combine items in groups of any significant symptom, conduct classification:
TV, iron, ball, vacuum cleaner;
– cabbage, onion, Apple, carrot;
– shoes, boots, hat, boots;
– sphere, cube, rhombus, square.
“Who who who?” Teach children to understand the relationships use words denoting kinship and relatives. Ask the children questions and if they are unsure about the answer, give explanations:
– whom you brought mom and dad?
– who are you for grandma and grandpa?
– who do you have siblings?
-what for you are your parents cousins and sisters? You’re who? Etc., etc….
Logical questions and tasks:
1. In the hall lay one chocolate. By the evening she was gone. Who took it, if the room was; a cat fish in the aquarium, grandpa and mole?
2. How many legs have two cubs?
3. How many ears of three mice?
4. Over the river flying birds: pigeon, pike, two Tits, two swift and five eels. How many birds? Answer quick!
5. On the machine can be loaded only 4 logs. How many times have to go to the forest to bring nine of the logs?
“Obvious sign”. You finger paint on the palm (back, shoulder) of the child geometric shapes (objects, letters, numbers), and he guesses that you drew (wrote).
“Anagram”. The basis of this exercise are combinatorial type, i.e. those in which the solution is the result of creating certain combinations. An example of such combinatorial problems are anagrams – letter combination from which to make meaningful words.