The development of thinking – One of the theories of cognitive development of the child (piaget) has been called “operational”. The operation is an “internal validity, the transformation product (the”internalization”) external, objective action, coordinated with other actions in a single system, the main feature of which is reversible (for each operation there is a symmetric and opposite operation.
In the development of operational intelligence in children by Jean piaget identified the following four stages.
1. Stage of sensorimotor intelligence, covering the period of a child’s life from birth to 2 years. It is characterized by the development of the ability to perceive and cognize surrounding the child objects are quite stable in their properties and attributes.
2. Stage cooperationamong thinking, including the development of thinking of children aged 2 to 7 years. At this stage the child develops speech, begins the active process of internalization of external actions with objects that are generated visual representation.
3. Stage of concrete operations with objects. It is typical for children from ages 7-8 to 11-12 years. Here mental operations become reversible.
4. Stage of formal operations. Its in its development reach children in the middle ages: 11-12 to 14-15 years. This stage is characterized by the child’s ability to perform operations in mind, using logical reasoning and concepts. Internal mental operations become at this stage in structurally organized whole.
In our country the most widely used in training mental actions received theory of the formation and development of intellectual operations, developed by P. J. Halperin /P. Y. Galperin Formation of mental actions //readings in General psychology; Psychology of thinking. – M. 1981/. The basis of this theory was the idea of genetic dependencies between internal intellectual operations and external actions. Previously, this provision has been the development of the French psychological school (A. Vallon) and in other writings of Jean piaget. In the USSR it was based in their theoretical and experimental work of L. S. Vygotsky, A. A. Leontiev, V. V. Davydov, A. V. Zaporozhets, and many others.
P. Y. Galperin highlighted the stages of internalization of external action, must determine the conditions that ensure their full and effective translation into internal actions with predetermined qualities.
The process of transferring external action occurs inside, P. Y. Galperin, step by step, passing through well-defined stages.
The formation of mental actions is represented as follows.
1. Acquaintance with the composition of the future actions in practical terms and with the requirements (samples), which it ultimately must match. Is introducing a tentative basis for future action.
2. Perform specified actions in the external form, in practical terms, with real objects or their substitutes. The development of this external action goes on all key parameters with a certain type of orientation in each.
3. Perform an action without direct reliance on external objects or their substitutes. Moved the action from an external in the loud speech. “the Transfer of a voice plan, wrote P-Y. Galperin, means not only the expression of the action of speech, but also speech the implementation of concrete actions”.
4. The transfer grammaticheskogo actions in the internal plan. Free speech activities are all “myself”.
5. The action in terms of inner speech with its corresponding transformations and reductions, with the departure of the action, its process and details of performance from the sphere of conscious control and the transition to the level of intellectual abilities and skills.
In our country Vygotsky L. S. Sakharov was one of the first scientists psychologists who thoroughly investigated the process of formation of concepts in the individual. They suggested a method (function method, “double stimulation”).
With the help of this technique, it was found that the formation of concepts in children goes through three main stages:
1. The formation of irregular, unordered sets of individual objects, their syncretic clutch, denoted by one word. This stage in turn breaks down into three stages: the selection and Association of objects at random, the selection is based on the spatial location of objects and the proper value of all previously merged items
2. Education concepts – complexes on the basis of some objective evidence. Systems of this kind are of four types: associative (any externally observed relationship is taken as a sufficient basis for the classification of subjects to one class), collectible (mutual addition and Association objects based on a private functional trait), chain (the transition of the Association from one symptom to another so that some objects are combined on the basis of one and the other absolutely other signs, all of which are included in the same group), pseudophakia (externally – term, internally -complex).
3. The formation of these concepts. We planned a child’s ability to allocate, to abstract elements and then integrate them into a holistic concept, regardless of the objects they belong to. This level includes the following stages: the stage of the potential of the concepts on which the child selects a group of objects by one characteristic; stage of true concepts, when abstracted set of necessary and sufficient characteristics for the definitions of, and then they are synthesized and included in the relevant definition.